That’s incorrect. Solutions written in all languages get the same time.
That’s incorrect - 2n is faster, 20n is slower.
That’s incorrect - TLE doesn’t say anything about the correctness of the code. All it means is that it takes too long to run, so it’s stopped. The output is not checked after TLE.
The only thing that causes TLE is the execution time exceeding that allowed. Whatever O your algorithm is, it will get TLE if the execution time is too long. There has to be a limit for the constant factor somewhere, and that limit will necessarily be different for fast languages like C or C++ than it is for slower languages like Python and Java. So an algorithm that is 20n may pass when written in C++, but fail when written in Python. Likewise, an algorithm that is 1000000n will likely fail even in C++.